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Introduction of Population Explosion
Rapidly increasing population is the most gigantic, formidable, and intractable problem, which the world faces today. Everybody knows that the world of today is said to be overpopulated. The alarming increase in the world population poses specific crucial economic, political, and social problems. A country becomes overpopulated when its resources fall to cope with Its requirements, and Its natural resources are insufficient to meet the needs of the people. The very basic reason for the rapid population increase is scientific and technological advancement, which saves thousands of lives each year, that previously were digested by disease, epidemics, and natural disasters.
The world is becoming more and more competitive because of the rampant population of multiplication. We have limited resources. As population increases, the struggle for the allocation of these scarce resources becomes severe and Intense. This phenomenon gives rise to conflict and confrontation in every field of life, “The struggle for existence” becomes hard every newborn baby, and nature’s selection for better also becomes ruthless.
The rate of increase in population during the last 50 years was amazingly rapid, and the world average rests around 1.5 percent per annum. The population rate in some countries, especially the less developed ones, increase as high as 3 to 4 percent while in others as the part of the developed and prosperous world rose only from 1 to 2 percent.
The world population did not cause any concerns until the industrial revolution took place in Europe. The total world population did not reach one billion marks until the beginning of the 19th Century. This was the period of the high fertility rate, which was matched by a mortality rate. Resulting in a static world population. Large scale deaths due to an outbreak of frequent epidemics and famines served as a natural check on the population.
The 18th and the 19th centuries, however, ushered in the demographics revolution in Europe as a result of the decline in the mortality rate caused by phenomenal advancement in medical research. Thus the world population. Which stood at 470 million in 1650, had risen to 5.000 million by 1989 and has to reach 6.000 million marks by the turn of the Century. The average rate of population increase now ranges between 2.3 percent to 9 2.per cent per annum. _ Population Explosion
It is now an established fact that several developing countries, such as India, Bangladesh. South Korea and Thailand, which Introduced the family planning services around the same time as Pakistan, are far ahead in their fertility reduction efforts.
Malthus Theory of Population:
Malthus, a well-known economist, gave his famous theory of population. According to him, the population of the world Increases in geometric progression like 2, 4, S. 16, etc. while the resources to meet the demand of the population increase in arithmetic progression like l, 2, 3, 4. etc. So there are more people and fewer resources in the world. At that time, nature controls the population by own way i.e., floods. Earthquakes, diseases, and wars. This theory was subsequently falsified in Europe but is still valid in developing countries.
Main Causes of Over Population:
- Increase in fertility rale
- Control of fatal diseases
- Infant death rate curtailed
- Lack of recreational facilities
- Male-dominated society
- Early marriages
- The low status of women
- Joint family system
- Warm climate
- False religious practices Polygamy
Effect of Population Growth:
Human resources play a conflicting role in the process of development. It an asset for a country, which has abundant capital and scarce labor. For a poor country like Pakistan, having scarcity of Capital and rampant labor, the rapid population adversely affects economic development. The effects of the effect of population growth on economic development are briefly described as under:
- Economic Development: The rapidly rising population affects economic development in the following ways: First. A greater percentage of the scarce resources diverted to meet the higher needs of masses and little Capital is saved for investment. Second, the pressure of the population makes the agricultural holding uneconomic as divided and into families and sub-families, and the Yield per hector decreases. Third, the fast-growing population creates economic and social problems such as power, housing, transport, education.
- Per Capita Income. The rapidly rising population nullifies the increase made in the income and leads to a decline in the per capita income of the country
- Standard of living. The moving population reduces per capita income and increases the prices of goods. As the in demand affects the supply of various goods. It lowers the quality of life of the people. Thirty-five percent of the population lives below the poverty in Pakistan. _ Population Explosion
- Agricultural Development. The fast-growing population, with an inelastic supply of labor, puts pressure on land. It makes difficult the use of the improved techniques of agriculture, increases the number of landless workers, retards capital formation in the agriculture sector, and creates a problem of low productivity and food shortage. Thus the pressure on the population makes agricultural development quite stagnant.
- Employment. A rapidly increasing population reduces income, savings, and investment in the country. The decline in Capital leads to unemployment and underemployment. In •Pakistan, the ratio of unemployment is 25 percent in cities and double in rural areas, and there are one million increases in it annually.
- Conflicts and Confrontations. The society becomes more competitive, ultimately giving rise to conflicts and confrontations: the crisis of Karachi has its roots in this problem.
- Social Infrastructure. In a country having a rapid rate of increase in population, huge investment is required in social Infrastructure. Due to the scarcity of Capital, it is not possible to provide full facilities of education, health. Medical, transport, and housing, etc. to the population. As a result of overcrowding everywhere, the quality of their services goes down. The public sector, as well as the private sector, cannot build social Infrastructure. _ Population Explosion
- Capital Formation. A fast rate of increase of population reduces incomes, lowers savings and investments, and thus retards capital formations.
- Environment. The rapid population growth creates air, water, and noise pollution in cities and towns and thus leads to environmental damage. It is a pity that we establish new industries and build new colonies by cleaning the forests and destroying the natural environment at the cost of our health.
In recent years, the emphasis has shifted to human beings as the prime focus of development policies. That is why the Cairo Conference has concentrated so strongly on the empowerment of women, and not just in the matter of family size. It is now recognized that the collective progress of mankind depends crucially on the well-being and prosperity of the individuals who constitute humanity. What is more, nearly half of these individuals are women, who have traditionally been disadvantaged and kept out of decision making from family levels upwards. Until their condition is improved, Hence women must be taken into account and more meaningfully involved’ in matters of education and welfare and in the formulation of decisions and policies covering the whole spectrum of development, if any uplift programmed is to be made successful.
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